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BSCI 1510L Literature and Stats Guide: 7 References

Introduction to Biological Sciences lab, first semester

7 References

Aiello A.E., E.L. Larson, S.B. Levy, 2007. Consumer antibacterial soaps: effective or just risky. Clinical Infectious Diseases 45 (suppl 2):137-147. (Review article).

Larson E., A. Aiello, L.V. Lee, P. Della-Latta, C. Gomez-Duarte, S. Lin. 2003. Short- and long term effects of handwashing with antimicrobial or plain soap in the community. Journal of Community Health 28:139-150.

Leyden J.J., K.J. McGinley, M.S. Kaminer, J. Bakel, S. Nishijima, M.J. Grove, G.L. Grove. 1991. Computerized image analysis of full-hand touch plates: a method for quantification of surface bacteria on hands and the effect of antimicrobial agents, Journal of Hospital Infection 18 (Supplement B):13-22.

Sickbert-Bennett E.E., D.J. Weber, M.F. Gergen-Teague, M.D. Sobsey, G.P. Samsa, W.A. Rutala. 2005. Comparative efficacy of hand hygiene agents in the reduction of bacteria and viruses.  American Journal of Infection Control 33:67-77.

Fierer, N, M. Hamady, C.L. Lauber, R. Knight. 2008. The influence of sex, handedness, and washing on the diversity of hand surface bacteria.  Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 105:17994-17999. This paper describes research on differences between the bacterial composition of left and right hands.  Although it is focused on the diversity of bacterial species rather than the abundance of bacteria overall, it is worth a look.

Lingass, E. and M. Fagernes. 2009. Development of a method to measure bacterial transfer from hands.  Journal of Hospital Infection 72:43-49.  This paper describes a method which is a modification of the standard glove juice method (the "double glove juice" method). 

Kampf, G. and A. Kramer. 2005. Efficacy of hand hygiene agents at short application times.  American Journal of Infection Control 33:429-431.  Response to Sickbert-Bennett article.

Rotter, M., S.A. Sattar, S. Dharan, P. Webber, A. Voss, D. Pittet. 2005. Comparative efficacy of hand hygiene agents in the reduction of bacteria and viruses.  American Journal of Infection Control 33:558-560.  Another response to the Sickbert-Bennett article.

Paulson, D.S. 2005. Response: comparative efficacy of hand hygiene agents. American Journal of Infection Control 33:431-434.  Yet another response to the Sickbert-Bennett article. This scathing rebuke of the Sickbert-Bennett study concludes that it is so flawed that its results are inconclusive. Point 1 and Point 3 in the "Statistical Concerns" section are particularly important.

Larson, E. L., S.X. Lin,C. Gomez-Pichardo, P. Della-Latta. 2004. Effect of Antibacterial Home Cleaning and Handwashing Products on Infectious Disease Symptoms: A Randomized, Double-Blind Trial. Annals of Internal Medicine 140(5):321-9. [no DOI] This study by Elaine Larson's group was similar to the Larson (2003) study and found no effect of soap type on incidence of viral diseases.  Note in the "Sample and Setting" section how they performed a power analysis to determine the sample size that would be required to reveal a difference between the sampled group.  Their sample size exceeded this number so they were therefore justified in concluding that their intervention did not result in a difference between the groups.

United States Food and Drug Administration. 2016. FDA issues final rule on safety and effectiveness of antibacterial soaps.