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PORT 1111 - Explorations of Brazilian Cultures - Oliveira-Montes: Citing Your Sources

Style Guides for Writing

Style Guides provide formatting guidelines for research papers, including citations and bibliographies.  Different style guides are used for various disciplines.  MLA is the preferred style for this class and is linked below.

Find  information on MLA and other style guides


MLA Style

Sample citation style

The examples below demonstrate how the various elements of a book citation and a journal citation are arranged using the MLA Style Guide.

Oliveira, Emanuelle. Writing Identity: The Politics of Afro-Brazilian LiteratureIndiana: Purdue University Press, 2007.

Willson, Jr., Robert F. "William Shakespeare's Theater." The Greenwood Companion to Shakespeare: A Comprehensive Guide for Students. Ed. Joseph Rosenblum. Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 2005. 47-64. Print.

Graham, Sarah. “Impossible to Hold: Women and Culture in the 1960s.” Journal of American Studies 40.2 (2006): 418-19. Print.

Citing What You Find


When you "cite" a source you are showing, within the body of your text, that you took the words or ideas from another place. 

checkmark You also are providing a way for the reader (your professor) to locate the sources you relied on in your research.
checkmark Failure to acknowledge these sources can be considered plagiarism.
checkmark Remember that for whatever style you chose (in consultation with your professor), pay attention to the details and be consistent.  Incorrect citations are just as bad as no citations at all!

The style guides highlighted below are the most common style guides in use in First Year Writing Seminars and academia in general. 

Consult your professor before selecting a style guide for your assignments.

Regardless of your intent, each of the following constitutes plagiarism:


checkmarkDirect Plagiarism -- including a verbatim quotation without a proper citation

checkmarkParaphrasing without a citation...passing off the ideas of others as your own

checkmarkThe inclusion of graphics, tables, charts or web pages without proper acknowledgement

checkmarkDouble dipping -- turning in the same paper for more than one class

See the "Citing Your Sources" Tab for more information about how to credit your sources.

Some tips to help you avoid accidental plagiarism include:


checkmarkStart your research early -- procrastination can lead to last minute stress & sloppy work

checkmarkKeep notes or a bibliography of the sources you consult as you go -- it is easier than reconstructing it at the end.

checkmarkVisit the Writing Studio for help on  incorporating your evidence & sources into your paper.