Academic writing has features that vary only slightly across the different disciplines. Knowing these elements and the purpose of each serves help you to read and understand academic texts efficiently and effectively, and then apply what you read to your paper or project.
Social Science (and Science) original research articles generally follow IMRD: Introduction- Methods-Results-Discussion
Introduces topic of article
Presents the "Research Gap"/Statement of Problem article will address
How research presented in the article will solve the problem presented in research gap.
Literature Review. presenting and evaluating previous scholarship on a topic. Sometimes, this is separate section of the article.
Method & Results
How research was done, including analysis and measurements.
What answers were found
Interpretation of Results (What Does It Mean? Why is it important?)
Implications for the Field, how the study contributes to the existing field of knowledge
Suggestions for further research
You might also see IBC: Introduction - Body - Conclusion
Identify the subject
State the thesis
Describe why thesis is important to the field (this may be in the form of a literature review or general prose)
Body - a.k.a. Evidence/Counter Evidence
Integrate other writings (i.e. evidence) to support argument
Discuss why others may disagree (counter-evidence) and why argument is still valid
Summary of argument
Evaluation of argument by pointing out its implications and/or limitations
Anticipate and address possible counter-claims
Suggest future directions of research