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Ancient Near East: Writing Resources


SBL Biblical Fonts webpage includes downloads and "read me" files with keyboard instructions for the following fonts: Aramaic, Coptic, Greek, Hebrew, Syriac, Textual Criticism, and Transliteration.

Oracc Unicode Fonts webpage has dozens of freely downloadable fonts required for viewing their cuneiform corpus.


There is a Logos Transliteration Keyboard that can be downloaded and used in place of the standard English keyboard. This keyboard is not installed on the Divinity Library computers, but it is free and can be downloaded on personal computers. The link is to the download, which should also download a pdf file providing instructions.

Feel free to no longer have to use the symbols of Microsoft Word!

General ANE Reference Sets

All of the tools below include bibliography for further study. For more starting points, consult our bibliographies.

  • Anchor Bible Dictionary (ABD)
    ABD includes encyclopedia entries on topics related to biblical and ANE studies.
  • Brill's New Pauly: Encyclopedia of the Ancient World
    Brill's New Pauly includes many entries related to time periods (post-Alexander) and places (the Mediterranean) not included in other ANE reference works.  In the table of contents, click on "Antiquity" to limit your results.
  • Civilizations of the Ancient Near East (CANE)
    CANE includes articles on major topics of ANE studies. To access information, consult the chapter headings and the subject index in volume four.
  • Oxford Encyclopedia of Ancient Egypt (OEAE)
    OEAE provides overviews of topics related to the study of Ancient Egypt. VU users can access the encyclopedia electronically.
  • Oxford Encyclopedia of Archaeology in the Near East (OEANE)
    Part of Oxford Biblical Studies Online
    OEANE provides information on major archaeological sites and topics related to ANE archaeology.

Bibliographic Citation Style

For your work at Vanderbilt (Divinity or GDR), use the SBL Handbook of Style (Divinity Reference Sub-Study 2 PN147 .S26 1999) unless otherwise instructed. For additional style information (and more on transliteration), consult:  Student Supplement to the SBL Handbook of Style (pdf)


Many publications include a list of abbreviations. If the material that you are reading does not have one, consult those in the general reference tools. The SBL Handbook of Style (Divinity Reference Sub-Study 2 PN147 .S26 1999) includes abbreviations. These on-line resources come recommended, too.

  • Archiv für Orientforschung (The are two links to PDF files beside "Gesamtabkürzungsverzeichnis." List 1 is alphabatized by abbreviation. List 2 is alphabatized by source.)