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Plagiarism, Citation, Copyright and Fair Use: Citing Business Resources - APA Reference List Examples

Avoiding plagiarism, including Vanderbilt-specific resources. Citation formats. Copyright and fair use resources.

Disclaimer About these Examples

While the APA provides clear-cut instructions for citing standard publication types, some business resources have unique elements that make it necessary for us to make an interpretation of the APA rules.

Article from a Library Database that Doesn't Use DOI (e.g. ABI Inform - ProQuest)

Journal Article:

Arruda-Filho, E., Cabusas, J., & Dholakia, N. (2010). Social behavior and brand devotion among iPhone innovators. International Journal of Information Management, 30(6), 475-480.

Magazine Article:

Barkin, E. (2010, April). Jetting to greener pastures. Customer Relationship Management, 14(4), 30-33,36.

Newspaper Article:

Burkitt, L. (2010, December 16). McDonald's joins the line looking to expand in China. Wall Street Journal [Eastern edition], p. B.8. 

Article from a Library Database that Does Use DOI (e.g. Management & Organization Studies)

Holland, C. P. (1995). Cooperative supply chain management: The impact of interorganizational information systems. The Journal of Strategic Information Systems, 4(2), 117-133. doi:10.1016/0963-8687(95)80020-Q  

Blog (Weblog) and VideoBlog Post

Include the title of the message and the URL. Please note that titles for items in online communities (e.g. blogs, newsgroups, forums) are not italicized. If the author’s name is not available, provide the screen name.

J Dean. (2008, May 7). When the self emerges: Is that me in the mirror? [Web log comment]. Retrieved from http://www.spring.org.uk/the1sttransport

Ex.1 : Blog post  See APA manual (6th ed.), p. 215 #76
Author, A. A. or Screen name. (Year, Month Day). title of blog posting [Web blog posting]. Retrieved from URL

Baird, L. R. (2009, July 3). Meeting at ALA's DLS discussion group [Web log post]. Retrieved from http://www.cmu.edu/ocls/2010/6/meeting_at_alas.php
  • A blog comment in reply to the posting would be formatted as follows:

 Ex.2 : Blog post, screen name  See APA manual (6th ed.), p. 215 #76

Hawkke. (2009, January 3). Coffee and bagels will be provided [Web log comment]. Retrieved from http://www.cmu.edu/ocls/2010/6/coffee_and_bagels.php
  • When the author's name is provided, use the format with last name and initials.
  • If only a screen name is provided, use that followed by a period.  Note that if the author posted with a screen name, that is the name you must use in your document. This is addressed in the APA Publication Manual (6th ed., p. 215, Ex. 76). Although a nickname may seem informal, keep in mind that a blog is a more informal mode of communication than a journal article. Whatever the medium, it is important to identify the author by the name under which he or she wrote the work in question.

Ex. 3: Video blog post.  See See APA manual (6th ed.), p. 215, #77
Author or screen name. (Year, Month day). Subject line of message [Video file]. Retrieved from http://xxxxxxxx                      

                          Psychology Video Blog #3 [Video file]. Retrieved from http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=lqM90eQi5-M

Librarian in Black. (2011, August 3). The IRB process [Video file]. Retrieved from http://www.you_tube.com/group/watch?v=Xkas43nsu_IRB

Ex. 4:  Embedded video in a blog post -- see APA (6th ed.), p. 215, #76

Sheppard, 

N.  (2010, June 12). Commemorating 23rd anniversary of Reagan's 'Tear down this wall' speech [Video file]. Retrieved from http://newsbusters.org/blogs/noel-sheppard/ 2010/06/12/commemorating-23rd-anniversary-reagans-tear-down-wall-speech

Book Chapter

See APA (6th ed.), pp. 202-204, section 7.02 and APA Style posting on books, reference books, and book chapters.

Ex. 1: Book chapter

Idler,

E. (2003). Beliefs. InMultidimensional measurement of religiousness/spirituality for use in health research: A report of the Fetzer Institute/National Institute on aging working group (pp. 31-33). Kalamazoo, MI: The John E. Fetzer Institute.

 

 Pargament,

K. I. (1998). Religion and coping. In Handbook of religion and mental health (pp. 111-128). San Diego, CA: Academic Press.

  • Provide a reference citation for a book chapter when the author of the chapter is different from the author or editor of the book. If the chapter is in a book with a single author, then you do not provide a citation for specific chapters, just the entire book. However, you can have a text citation for a chapter of a book that has a single author. For example, (Smith, 2011, Chapter 2) or In Chapter 2, Smith (2011) stated that....
  • The book chapter is listed with "In ..." followed by the name of the book.
  • Only the first word in the book title and the subtitle as well as proper names like Fetzer Institute should be capitalized. 
  • Include the page numbers with p. or pp. in parentheses after the book title and before the period.
  • Include the city and the state abbreviation for the location or city and country.

Ex. 2: Book chapter in edited book

        Author, A. A., & Author, B. B. (Year of publication). Title of chapter. In A. Editor & B. Editor (Eds.), Title of book (pages of chapter). Location:  Publisher.

Note: When you list the pages of the chapter or essay in parentheses after the book title, use "pp." before the numbers: (pp. 1-21). This abbreviation, however, does not appear before the page numbers in periodical references, except for newspapers.

         O'Neil, J. M., & Egan, J. (1992). Men's and women's gender role journeys: A metaphor for healing, transition, and transformation. In B. R. Wainrib (Ed.), Gender issues across the life cycle (pp. 107-123). New York, NY: Springer

 

Hawkins,

R. C., & Clement, P. F. (1984). Binge eating: Measurement problems and a conceptual model. In R. C. Hawkings, II, W. J. Fremouw, & P. F. Clement (Eds.), The binge-purge syndrome: Diagnosis, treatment, and research (pp. 229-251). New York, NY: Springer. 

 

 Lacey,

J. H. (1986). Pathogenesis. In I. J. Downey, J. C. Malkin (Eds),  Current approaches: Bulimia nervosa (pp. 241-265). Southhamptom, United Kingdom: Duphar.

 Johnson,

A. M., Verson, P. A., & Feiler, A. R. (2008). Behavioral genetic studies of personality: An introduction and review of the results of 50+ years of research. in G. J. Boyle, G.  Matthews, & D. H. Saklofske, The SAGE Handbook of Personality Theory and Assessment: Vol 1: Personality theories and models (pp. 145-173). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage. 

 

 American

 Psychiatric Association. (2000). Appendix I: Outline for cultural formulation and glossary of culture bound syndromes. In Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders (4th ed., text rev.). Washington, DC: Author.

  •   When the group author is also the publisher, use the word Author for the publisher information. In this case, the author is an association so the American Psychological Association is listed as the author, and the word Author is listed as the publisher of the publication manual.

If a book chapter has a DOI number, the number replaces the location and publisher information.

American Psychiatric Association. (2000). Appendix I: Outline for cultural formulation and glossary of culture bound syndromes. In Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders (4th ed., text rev.). doi:10.1176/appi.books.9780890423349.7060

Ex. 3: Entry in a print encyclopedia or dictionary, no author or editor.
Entry heading or title. (Year). In Title of encyclopedia  (Vol. volume number, then if appropriate, pp. page#s). Place of publication: Publisher.

Webster's new world dictionary of the American language (2nd ed.). (2009). New York, NY: Simon and Schuster.

Ex. 4: Book chapter in book retrieved from archival database.
See APA manual (6th ed.), pp. 192, 204, # 25, information about subscription databases on p. 207, 7.05

Smith, R. J.  (2010). William Faulkner. In J. T. Culpepper (Ed.), Contemporary authors (DX Reader version). Retrieved from Literature Resources from Gale database.
  • Provide the subscription database instead of the home page or entry page URL of the publisher  or other primary publishing channels, if the book is available from an archival database.   

 Ex. 5: E-book chapter, open access

Glass, G.  (2008). What is the fate of public education in America? In Fertilizers, pills, and magnetic strips: The fate of public education in America.Retrieved from http://infoagepub.com/glass-chapter-10
  • The chapter is open access but not the book. As a result, a search of the Information Age Publishing website would not retrieve this chapter so the complete URL was provided.
  • Remove the hyperlink.  

Ex. 6: Introduction, preface, foreword, or afterword.

Take note: The section author is listed differently than the author(s) of the whole book:.
Author of section being cited. (Year). Name of section. In author of book, Title of book (p. or pp. page numbers). Place of publication: Publisher.

Gerry, I. (2008). Introduction. In B. Saveley, Secret city: Photographs from Peru (pp. 8-12). New York, NY: Thames and Hudson.

Ex. 7: Four authors of a chapter published in a conference proceedings.

Piton, T., Blanchard, J., Briand, H., & Gillie, F. (2009). Domain driven data mining to improve promotional campaign ROI and select marketing channels. In Proceedings of the 18th ACM Conference on Information and Knowledge Management (pp. 1057-1066). doi:10.1145/1645953.098
  • The book chapter is listed with "In ..." with the names of the editors.
  • The initials of the editors are listed before the surnames and include (Ed.) or (Eds.), followed by a comma.
  • Only the first word in the book title and the subtitle as well as any proper names should be capitalized.
  • Include the page numbers with p. or pp. in parentheses after the book title and before the period.
  • Include the city and the state abbreviation for the location or city and country.
  • Unnecessary words like Publisher, Company, and Inc. are not included

Census data

Population data:

U.S. Census Bureau. (2005-09). Guildford County, North Carolina -- Income in the Past 12 Months. [Table]. Retrieved from http://factfinder.census.gov/

Economic Census:

U.S. Census Bureau. (2007). Retail Trade: Geographic Area Series: Summary Statistics for the United States, States, Metro Areas, Counties, and Places: 2007. [Table]. Retrieved from http://factfinder.census.gov

County Business Patterns:

U.S. Census Bureau. (2009). Forsyth County, North Carolina -- 2009 County Business Patterns (NAICS). [Table]. Retrieved from http://censtats.census

Country Commerical Guides

U.S. Commerical Service, Department of Commerce. (2011, March 4). Argentina. Country Commercial Guide. Retrieved from http://www.buyusainfo.net/

Global Market Information Database (Passport GMID)

Euromonitor International. (2011, January 10). American Airlines fights the distribution model. Retrieved from Passport GMID database.

Euromonitor International. (2010, July 22). Mobile phones - US. Retrieved from Passport GMID database.

Euromonitor International. (n.d.). Consumer lifestyles in the US. Retrieved January 10, 2011, from Passport GMID database.

Euromonitor International. (2010, March 15). Starbucks Corp - hot drinks - USA. Retrieved from Passport GMID database.

Harvard Business Review Case Studies

Harvard Business School Case Study

Citation elements required and general format:

Author(s). (Year).

Title of case study. HBS No. number of case study. City,

State abbreviation or Country of publication: Publisher.

Video within a Case Study

Bartlett, C., & Wozny, M. (2005). Jack Welch's views on the impact of work-out [video file]. HBS 9-399-150. Boston, MA: Harvard Business School.

Reference list citation examples – Harvard Business School Case Study

In APA style, every author or editor’s name is inverted (the last name comes first); use only the initials for the first and middle names. Only capitalize the first word of the title, subtitle, and any proper nouns. If the author is unknown, begin with the title.

One Author:

Smith, S. (2003).

Leadership. HBS No. 7-806-122. Boston, MA: Harvard

Business School Publishing.

Two Authors:

Eisenmann, T., & Herman, K. (2006).

Google, Inc. HBS No. 9-806-105.

Boston, MA: Harvard Business School Publishing

Hoover's

Hoover's. (2012, January 15). Apple Computer, Inc. Retrieved from Hoover's database.

Online Forum or Discussion Board Posting

Include the title of the message, and the URL of the newsgroup or discussion board. Please note that titles for items in online communities (e.g. blogs, newsgroups, forums) are not italicized. If the author's name is not available, provide the screen name. Place identifiers like post or message numbers, if available, in brackets. If available, provide the URL where the message is archived (e.g. "Message posted to..., archived at...").

Frook, B. D. (1999, July 23). New inventions in the cyberworld of toylandia [Msg 25]. Message posted to http://groups.earthlink.com/forum/messages/00025.html

Podcast

Audio Podcast

For all podcasts, provide as much information as possible; not all of the following information will be available. Possible addition identifiers may include Producer, Director, etc.

                   Bell, T. & Phillips, T. (2008, May 6). A solar flare. Science @ NASA Podcast. Podcast retrieved from http://science.nasa.gov/podcast.htm

Author last name, First name, host’s name or producer’s name. “Title of podcast.” Date of podcast. “Title of podcast show “(if different than the title). Title of larger site. Web- podcast. Date of download. <Podcast URL>

Ex. 1: Audio podcast  See APA manual (6th ed.), p. 210, #50.
Author, A. A. OR Author screen name. (Producer). (Year, Month Day {of podcast}). Title of podcast [Audio podcast]. Retrieved from http://xxxx

Bass,

C.  {Producer). (2009). Qualitative and quantitative research [Audio podcast].  Retrieved from http://www.nova.edu/schoolofed/rss/podcast_ss.xml

 Van

Nuys, D. (Producer). (2007, Decemenber 19). Shrink rap radio [Audio podcast]. Retrieved from http://www.shrinkrapradio.com/

·     Use the author or screen name and include (Producer) in parentheses.

·     Include the month after the year and do not abbreviate the month.

·     Italicize the title of the podcast.

·     Provide information about the format in brackets before the period. For example, [Audio podcast]

·     Provide the URL in the retrieval statement. Remove any hyperlinking because APA does not use color or underling

 

Podcast in MP3 file  See APA manual (6th ed.), p. 210, #50.

John

Grisham tackles writing suspense for kids [Audio podcast]. (2010, June 7). On All Things Considered, National Public Radio,  Retrieved from http://www.npr.org/templates/story/
story.php?storyId=127475775&ft=1&f=1033

·     Do not italicize the title.

·     Provide information about the format in brackets before the period.

·     Provide the URL in the retrieval statement. 

 

Podcast located in a library database

Now libraries databases are including podcasts from educational websites. APA does not provide a specific example for podcasts, but the retrieval statement for this reference citation was modeled on the way APA handles similar cases with journal article.

Patterson

L. (2009). Harry Gray's solar fuel cells will create fuel from sunlight [Audio podcast]. Retrieved from Earthsky website: http://www.earthsky.com

·     The retrieval statement includes information about the original source of the information on a website rather than the name of the library database.

·     Use the home URL if you think someone can easily retrieve the podcast, or provide the full web address.

·     Remove hyperlinking, and do not include a period at the end of the URL.

 

 

Video Podcasts

For all podcasts, provide as much information as possible; not all of the following information will be available. Possible addition identifiers may include Producer, Director, etc.

 Scott, D. (Producer). (2007, January 5). The community college classroom [Episode 7]. Adventures in Education. Podcast retrieved from http://www.adveeducation.com

  

 

Standard & Poor's NetAdvantage

Basham, M. (2010, September 2). Restaurants. Standard & Poor's Industry Surveys. Retrieved from Standard and Poor's NetAdvantage database.

Standard & Poor's. (2011, January 8). Bank of America Corp. Standard & Poor's Stock Reports. Retrieved from Standard and Poor's NetAdvantage database.

U.S. Census / American Factfinder

U.S. Census Bureau. (2010). ZCTA5 02451, QT-P11 - Households and Families: 2010 [Data]. Census 2010 Summary File 1. Retrieved from http://factfinder2.census.gov

U.S. Census Bureau. (2010). Middlesex County, Massachsuetts, DP-1 Profile of General Population and Housing Characteristics: 2010 [Data]. 2010 Demographic Profile Data. Retrieved from http://factfinder2.census.gov

U.S. Census Bureau. (2006-2010). Boston city, Massachusetts, DP02 Selected social characteristics in the United States [Data]. 2010 American Community Survey 5-Year Estimates. Retrieved from http://factfinder2.census.gov

U.S. Census Bureau. (2008). Middlesex County, MA [Data]. 2008 County Business Patterns. Retrieved from http://www.census.gov/econ/cbp/index.html

Web Sites

Web page citation follows this basic format:  

Author, A. (date). Title of document. Retrieved from http://URL

Web page:

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (2009). CDC recommendations for the amount of time persons with influenza-like illness should be away from others. Retrieved from http://www.cdc.gov/h1n1flu/guidance/exclusion.htm

Web page where no author is identified:

All 33 Chile miners freed in flawless rescue. (2010, October 13). Retrieved from http://www.msnbc.msn.com/id/39625809/ns/world_news-americas/

Web page where no date is identified:

The College of William and Mary. (n.d.). College mission statement. Retrieved from http://www.wm.edu/about/administration/provost/mission/index.php

World Development Indicators (WDI)

World Bank Group. (n.d.). United Kingdom [Data]. Retrieved December 12, 2010, from World Development Indicators (WDI) database.

World Bank Group. (n.d.). Health expenditure per capita [Data]. Retrieved January 5, 2011, from World Development Indicators (WDI) database.