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Style Guides for Writing: CSE/CBE Citation-Sequence System

How the Citation-Sequence System Works

According to CSE style, you identify in the text of your paper the sources of information (references) you have used. This serves the same purpose as "footnotes," but is integrated smoothly into the text of your paper, rather than listed separately. The CSE style offers several methods of citing your references. This handout illustrates the Citation-Sequence method.

As each source is mentioned in the text, it is numbered in sequence. Page numbers are not added.

Ozone plays an important role in photochemical smog and in the production of acid rain.1

If a source is used again later, the original number is reused.

"The American Lung Association (ALA) reports that lung disease is now the third leading cause of death in the country and the fastest growing among the top five causes and that ozone pollution contributes to this deadly trend." 8

On the other hand, atmospheric ozone absorbs ultraviolet radiation with wavelengths between 240 and 320 nanometers which is lethal to simple unicellular organisms and the surface cells of higher plants and animals.1

The complete references are listed at the end of the paper in the order they were numbered in your paper.

Encyclopedia Articles

Signed encyclopedia article1Prinn, RG. Atmospheric ozone. In McGraw-Hill encyclopedia of science and technology. 7th ed. New York: McGraw-Hill; 1992. Volume 2, p 229-232.
Signed encyclopedia article found in an online database (example one)8Brasseur GP, Prinn RG. 2007. Stratospheric ozone. In AccessScience @ McGraw-Hill: encyclopedia of science and technology online [database on the Internet]. 2007 ed. [New York]: McGraw-Hill. [cited 2009 Oct 12]. Available from: http://www.accessscience.com/.
Signed encyclopedia article found in an online database (example two)10Young C and updated by staff. Nuts. In: Kirk-Othmer encyclopedia of chemical technology [database on the Internet]. 1999-2009 ed. Hoboken, NJ: Wiley; 2007. [cited 2009 Oct 13]. Available from: http://mrw.interscience.wiley.com/emrw/9780471238966/home/.
Signed encyclopedia article found in an online database (example three)2Uretsky S, Davidson AMT, Longe JL. Antacids. In: Gale encyclopedia of medicine [database on the Internet]. 4th ed. Detroit (MI): Thomson Gale; 2008. [cited 2009 Oct 22]. (Health Reference Center Academic). [about 2 p.]. http://find.galegroup.com/gtx/start.do?prodId=HRCA.
Signed encyclopedia article found in an online database (example four)21Luster M, Simeonova P, Germolec D. Immunotoxicology. In: Encyclopedia of life sciences [database on the Internet]. 1999-2008 ed. Hoboken, NJ: Wiley; 2008. [cited 2008 Oct 28]. Available from: http://mrw.interscience.wiley.com/emrw/9780470015902/home/.
Signed encyclopedia article found in an online database (example five)2Uretsky S. Antacids. In: Gale encyclopedia of medicine [database on the Internet]. Vol. 1. 3rd ed. Detroit (MI): Gale; 2006. [cited 2007 Feb 20]. (Gale Virtual Reference Library). p 231-233. http://go.galegroup.com/ps/start.do?p=GVRL.