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Style Guides for Writing: Humanities Style

Capitalization in Foreign Language Titles

When adding a title that is in a foreign languge, follow these basic rules regardless of citation style:

For German, capitalize the first word and all nouns.

For French, capitalize THROUGH the first noun in the title.

For Italian and other languages, capitalize just the first word.

(NOTE: Always capitalize all proper nouns.)

Guidelines

The Humanities Style is preferred by many in literature, history, and the arts. This style presents bibliographic information in notes (either footnotes or endnotes) and, often, a bibliography. It accommodates a variety of sources, including esoteric ones less appropriate to the author-date system.

NOTE: If the bibliography includes all works cited in the notes, the note citations can be quite concise, since readers can turn to the bibliography for publication details. In works with no bibliography or only a selected list, full details must be given in a note at first mention of any work cited. Subsequent citations of that work may then be concise.

Each example includes a note [N] followed by a bibliographic entry [B]. After the first book entry, all Note examples will use the full version. To make it concise, use just the author's last name(s), the main title, and page number(s). 

Books

Book:
Single Author

First note citation in a paper with full bibliography or subsequent citations with or without:
N:   1. Gutman, Mozart, 41.

First note citation in a paper without full bibliography:
N:   1. Robert W. Gutman, Mozart: A Cultural Biography (New York: Harcourt Brace, 1999), 41.

B: Gutman, Robert W. Mozart: A Cultural Biography. New York: Harcourt Brace, 1999.

Book:
Two Authors

N:   7. Randolph Hock and Gary Price, The Extreme Searcher’s Internet Handbook: A Guide for the Serious Searcher (Medford: CyberAge Books, 2004), 93-94.

B: Hock, Randolph, and Gary Price. The Extreme Searcher’s Internet Handbook: A Guide for the Serious Searcher. Medford: CyberAge Books, 2004.

Book:
Four or More Authors

N:   2. William Davidson et al., Retailing Management, 6th ed. (New York: Wiley, 1988), 149.

B: Davidson, William, Daniel Sweeney, Thomas Jones, and Ronald Stampfl. Retailing Management. 6th ed. New York: Wiley, 1988.

Book:
No Author

If no personal author's name is listed on the title page, the organization/corporation is listed as author, even if it is also given as publisher.

N:   5. JIST Works, NAICS Desk Reference, 73.

B: JIST Works. NAICS Desk Reference: The North American Industry Classification System Desk Reference. Indianapolis: JIST Works, 2000.

Chapter in a Book

N:   6. Robert F. Willson, Jr., "William Shakespeare's Theater," in The Greenwood Companion to Shakespeare: A Comprehensive Guide for Students, ed. Joseph Rosenblum (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 2005), 52-53.

B: Willson, Jr., Robert F. "William Shakespeare's Theater." In The Greenwood Companion to Shakespeare: A Comprehensive Guide for Students, edited by Joseph Rosenblum, 47-64. Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 2005.

Book Published Electronically

If a book is available in more than one format, you should cite the version you consulted. For books consulted online, list a URL; include an access date only if one is required by your publisher or discipline. If no fixed page numbers are available, you can include a section title or a chapter or other number.

N:   3. Philip B. Kurland and Ralph Lerner, eds., The Founders’ Constitution (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1987), accessed June 27, 2006, http://press-pubs.uchicago.edu/founders/.

B: Kurland, Philip B., and Ralph Lerner, eds. The Founders’ Constitution. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1987. http://press-pubs.uchicago.edu/founders/.

 

For additional examples, see The Chicago Manual of Style chapter on Notes and Bibliography

Articles

Journals vs Magazines: Journals are normally cited by volume and date, while magazines are normally cited by date alone. If in doubt whether a particular periodical is a journal or magazine, use the journal format if the volume number is easily located, and the magazine format if it is not.

Journal with Issue Number Available

N:   1. Carolyn Simmons and Karen Becker-Olsen, "Achieving Marketing Objectives through Social Sponsorships," Journal of Marketing 70, no. 4 (2006): 161.

B: Simmons, Carolyn, and Karen Becker-Olsen. "Achieving Marketing Objectives through Social Sponsorships." Journal of Marketing, 70, no. 4 (2006): 154-169. 

Journal with no Issue Number

N:   4. Sarah Graham, "Impossible to Hold: Women and Culture in the 1960s," Journal of American Studies 40 (2006): 157.

B: Graham, Sarah. "Impossible to Hold: Women and Culture in the 1960s." Journal of American Studies 40 (2006):156-159.

Article in an Online Journal

Include a DOI (Digital Object Identifier) if the journal lists one. A DOI is a permanent ID that, when appended to http://dx.doi.org/ in the address bar of an Internet browser, will lead to the source. If no DOI is available, list a URL. Include an access date only if one is required by your professor or discipline.

N: 1. Gueorgi Kossinets and Duncan J. Watts, “Origins of Homophily in an Evolving Social Network,” American Journal of Sociology 115 (2009): 411, accessed February 28, 2010, doi:10.1086/599247.

     2. Kossinets and Watts, “Origins of Homophily,” 439.

B: Kossinets, Gueorgi, and Duncan J. Watts. “Origins of Homophily in an Evolving Social Network.” American Journal of Sociology 115 (2009): 405–50. Accessed February 28, 2010. doi:10.1086/599247.

Article in an Online Database

This is the same as for online journals as listed above, including use of access date. Also include the URL of the main entrance of the service.

N:   17. Trevor M. Thomas, "Wales: Land of Mines and Quarries," Geographical Review 46, no. 1 (1956): 71, http://www.library.vanderbilt.edu/eres?id=99.

B: Thomas, Trevor M. "Wales: Land of Mines and Quarries." Geographical Review 46, no. 1 (1956): 59-81. http://www.library.vanderbilt.edu/eres?id=99.

Entire Website

Websites may be cited in running text ("According to the National Weather Service's website, warmer temperatures may be expected...") instead of in a note, and they are commonly omitted from the bibliography as well. The following examples show the more formal version of the citations. Add the date the material was last accessed if you are required.

N:   13. “Internet Weather Source,” National Weather Service, http://www.nws.noaa.gov/.

B: National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. "NOAA's National Weather Service." U.S. Dept. of Commerce. Accessed January 17, 2010. http://www.nws.noaa.gov/.

Magazine

If article is from an online magazine, add the URL after the date and, if required by the professor or discipline, the date the material was last accessed (see second "B" example).

N:   4. Stanley Reed, "Seeing Past the War," Business Week, August 21, 2006, 21.

B: Reed, Stanley. "Seeing Past the War." Business Week, August 21, 2006.

B: Reed, Stanley. "Seeing Past the War." Business Week, August 21, 2006. Accessed October 3, 2006. http://www.businessweek.com/news/2006-08-21/seeing-past-the-war.html.

Newspaper

Newspaper articles may be cited in running text (“As William Niederkorn noted in a New York Times article on June 20, 2002, . . . ”) instead of in a note, and they are commonly omitted from the bibliography as well. The following examples show the more formal version of the citations.

N:   3. Zachary Seward, "Colleges Expand Early Admissions," Wall Street Journal, December 14, 2006, eastern edition.

B: Seward, Zachary. "Colleges Expand Early Admissions." Wall Street Journal. December 14, 2006, eastern edition.

 

For additional examples, see The Chicago Manual of Style chapter on Notes and Bibliography.. 

Personal Interviews & Films

Personal Interview

Unpublished interviews are best cited in the text or in notes, but are rarely listed in bibliographies.

N:   13. Krusty T. Clown, interview by Bart J. Simpson, February 10, 2007.

N:   7. Abraham Lincoln, interview with the author, October 17, 2009.

Published interviews should be treated like an article in a journal.

N:   3. Ted Nugent, interview by Robert MacNeil, MacNeil/Lehrer NewsHour, PBS, January 1, 2004.

Film

N:   9. E.T. the Extra-Terrestrial, directed by Steven Spielberg (Universal Pictures, 1982), film.

B: E.T. the Extra-Terrestrial. directed by Steven Spielberg. Film. Hollywood: Universal Pictures, 1982.

Recorded Film

Scenes from video recordings are treated like chapters and cited by title or number (see example #2).

N:   4. Harry Potter and the Sorcerer’s Stone, DVD, directed by Chris Columbus (Warner, 2002).

N:   2. "Crop Duster Attack," North by Northwest, DVD, directed by Alfred Hitchcock (1959; Burbank, CA: Warner Home Video, 2000).

B: The Adventures of Bob and Doug McKenzie: Strange Brew. VHS. Directed by Rick Moranis and Dave Thomas. Burbank, CA: Warner Home Video, 2000.

 TV Program N:   12. Seinfeld, "The Soup Nazi," NBC, November 2, 1995.


For additional examples, see The Chicago Manual of Style chapter on Notes and Bibliography

Sound Recordings & Music Scores

Recordings are often listed in a separate discography rather than in a bibliography. If included in a bibliography, they are best grouped under an appropriate subheading.

Entire Album

N:   14. The Beatles, Sgt. Pepper’s Lonely Heart Club’s Band, Capitol Records SMAS-2653, 33 rpm, 1967.

B: The Beatles. Sgt. Pepper’s Lonely Heart Club’s Band. Capitol Records SMAS-2653. 33 rpm. 1967.

Individual Song

N:   9. Frank Sinatra, "Strangers in the Night," On My Way: The Best of Frank Sinatra, Warner, audiocassette, 1996.

B: Sinatra, Frank. "Strangers in the Night." On My Way: The Best of Frank Sinatra. Warner. Audiocassette. 1996.

Spoken Word Recording

N:   5. Harper Lee, To Kill a Mockingbird, read by Sally Darling, Recorded Books, CD, 1988.

B: Lee, Harper. To Kill a Mockingbird. Read by Sally Darling. Recorded Books. CD. 1988.

Music Score

Music scores are treated basically like books.

N:   3. Ludwig van Beethoven, Symphony no. 7 in A Major, Op. 92, (Boston: Oliver Ditson, 1932).

B: Beethoven, Ludwig van. Symphony no. 7 in A Major, Op. 92. Boston: Oliver Ditson, 1932.

Live Performance

N:   2. The Nutcracker, Butler Ballet, Clowes Memorial Hall, Indianapolis, December 2, 2006.

B: NONE - Cite any kind of live performance only in the notes or just in the text itself.

 

For additional examples, see The Chicago Manual of Style chapter on Notes and Bibliography.

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