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LPO (Leadership, Policy & Organizations)

APA Citation Style

The American Psychological Association (APA) citation style is the dominate style used in the social sciences and the one required at Peabody.

Citations are important because they offer a uniform way in which authors convey where information comes from.  Since the style is standardized, readers in specific disciplines become accustomed to retrieving information from published works in a certain way.  This allows for ease of access to pertinent information.  In addition, proper citation ensures credit is given where credit is due and helps reduce unintentional plagiarism.

When we think of citation styles, we usually think of footnotes, end notes, in-text citations, and bibliographies. However, there is much more to it. Citation styles, like APA, also provide standardized rules for formatting papers and writing for your peers and colleagues. This lends structure to professional, academic writing.

APA Resources

Generic APA Format

1. Article:

Last, A.A., Last, B.B., & Last, C.C. (Year). Article Title. [Descriptor if applicable. Ex: Title translation, Map, Audio podcast, letter to the editor] Name of Periodical, Vol#(Issue#), p#-p#. URL or DOI

2. Book:

Last, A. A., Last, B. B., & Last, C. C. (Descriptor, like Ed. Cont. Trans.). (Year). Book title (Edition, Vols x-n, pp.nnn-yyy, if applicable). [Applicable descriptive information like Brochure]. City: Publisher.

3. Thesis/Dissertation:


Last Name, First Initial. (Year). Title (Descriptive Statement). Name of Institution, Location.


Last Name, First Initial. (Year). Title (Descriptive Statement). Retrieved from Database. (Accession, order, or document #.)