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Psychology and Human Development Resources (P&HD): Writing Tips for P&HD students

Quoting (Direct Quotes)

Definition:  Using an author’s exact words (verbatim)

How to avoid plagiarism:

  •          Use quotation marks around the author’s words
  •          Place an in-text (parenthetical) citation at the end of the quote
  •         Include a complete citation to the source in your reference list

Example of a direct quote:

“Why write a research paper? The answer is twofold. First, you add new information to your personal storehouse of knowledge by collecting and investigating facts and opinions about a limited topic from a variety of sources. Second, you add to the knowledge of others by effectively communicating the results of your research in the form of a well-reasoned answer to a scholarly problem or question (Lester, 1976, p. 1).

Paraphrasing

Definition: Putting an author’s ideas into your own words

How to avoid plagiarism:

  •         Use a signal phrase that states who and what you are paraphrasing

  •         Use the same ideas as the original text, but use your own words to paraphrase

  •        Place an in-text (parenthetical) citation at the end of paraphrase

  •        Include a complete citation to the source in your reference list.

 

Example of a paraphrase:

Lester (1976) states that when writing a research paper you create a storehouse of knowledge not only for yourself but also for your reader by collecting and communicating information on a particular topic (p. 1).

Summarizing

Summarizing

Definition:  Condensing an author’s ideas into a more concise statement

How to avoid plagiarism:

  • Use a signal phrase that states who and what you are summarizing

  • Create a brief description of the main points of the content using your own words

  • Place an in-text (parenthetical) citation at the end of the summary

  • Include a complete citation to the source in your reference list

Example of a summary:

In the book “Writing Research Papers: A Complete Guide”, the author declares that writing a research paper aids in developing familiarity on a particular subject for both the author and their reader (Lester, 1976, p. 1)

Common Knowledge

Common Knowledge:

Definition:  Information that is so well-known that it does not need to be cited

How to avoid plagiarism:

  • Common knowledge is information that the majority of people knows or can find quite easily in sources.

  • Common knowledge is also factual information, such as the state bird of Tennessee is the mockingbird.

  • If you are not sure whether something is common knowledge or not, go ahead and make a reference for it

 Examples of common knowledge:

  • There are 365 days in a year

  • George Washington was the first president of the United States

  • The United States has 50 states

 


 

Librarian

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David Golann
Contact:
Room 010, Peabody Library
615-322-8014
Subjects:Psychology